Corporate Governance

In accordance with the requirements of being an AIM-listed company the Board recognises that the application of sound corporate governance is essential to the Group’s ongoing success and adopt the principal provisions of the QCA Corporate Governance Code for Small and Mid-Size Quoted Companies published in April 2018 (“QCA guidelines”).

This report sets out the Board’s approach to Judges’ corporate governance in accordance with AIM rule 26, also documented in the 2021 annual report, accessible here.

Board composition

The Company is managed by a board of directors and they consider that they have the necessary skills and experience to operate and control the business effectively. The Board is responsible to the shareholders and sets the Group’s strategy for achieving long-term success. It is also ultimately responsible for the management, governance, controls, risk management, direction and performance of the Group. 

In 2021, the Board comprised of three Executive Directors, together with the Non-Executive Chairman and four further Non-Executive Directors, supported by the Company Secretary. 

The Group has two independent Non-Executive Directors in accordance with the QCA guidelines. All other Non-Executive Directors are not considered independent under the QCA guidelines by virtue of the duration of their tenure, as they have served more than nine years from the date of their first election or were previously an Executive Director of the Company. At the same time, the Company considers that these Non-Executive Directors in practice act independently of the Executive management and that the value of their long association with the Company alongside their deep understanding of the Group’s business model ensures that they are best placed to appropriately oversee adherence to the Group’s enduring strategy, which continues to provide shareholders with long-term market-beating performance.

The structure of the Board has been refreshed over the recent past, however wholesale change for the purpose of adopting perceived best practice is not considered beneficial for our shareholders, although over time, this process of Board composition refreshment will continue. It is also key that the Non-Executive Directors, as a whole, retain a corporate memory of past events to ensure that decision making of Executive Directors is appropriately challenged.

Board operation

The Board is responsible for the Company’s strategy and for its overall management. The operation of the Board is documented in a formal schedule of matters reserved for its approval, which is reviewed annually. These include (although not exhaustively) matters relating to:

• the Group’s strategic aims and objectives;
• the approval of significant acquisitions and expenditure;
• financial reporting, financial controls and dividend policy;
• the approval of the Group’s annual budget;
• the structure, capital and financing of the Group;
• internal control, risk and the Group’s risk appetite;
• effective communication with shareholders; and
• any changes to Board membership or structure.

Board decision making

The Board has a schedule of matters covering business, financial and operational matters ensuring that all areas of Board responsibility are addressed throughout the year. The Chairman, supported by the Company Secretary, is responsible for ensuring the Directors receive accurate and timely information. The Company Secretary compiles the Board papers which are circulated to Directors in advance of meetings. The Company Secretary prepares and provides minutes of each meeting and every Director is aware of the right to formally minute any concerns.

Board meetings

The Board meets monthly (except in August) in addition to any ad hoc Board meetings that may be required during the year. Non-Executive Directors communicate directly with Executive Directors between formal Board meetings as necessary.

Directors are expected to attend all meetings of the Board, and the Committees on which they sit, and to devote sufficient time to the Company’s affairs to enable them to fulfil their duties as Directors. In the event that Directors are unable to attend a meeting in person they will endeavour to attend via phone, Microsoft Teams or similar arrangement. In a normal year, Board meetings are held at the Group’s head office or rotated around the Group’s operating companies so that the Board are able to meet local management, however due to the restrictions imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic, the majority of Board meetings in 2021 had to be held remotely using Microsoft Teams although prior to the arrival of the Omicron variant, the Board were delighted to have been able to hold two in-person Board meetings at our subsidiaries.

When Directors cannot attend, their comments on papers to be considered at the meeting will be discussed in advance with the Chairman so that their contribution can be included in the wider Board discussion.

The Board has delegated specific responsibilities to the Audit and Remuneration Committees, details of which are set out below:

Each Committee has written terms of reference setting out its duties, authority and reporting responsibilities. The terms of reference of each Committee are kept under continuous review to ensure they remain appropriate to the Group.

Each Committee is comprised of three of the Non-Executive Directors of the Company. The Company Secretary is the secretary of each Committee. 

Audit Committee

The Audit Committee is chaired by Ralph Elman and the other members are Ralph Cohen and Charles Holroyd. The Audit Committee has primary responsibility for monitoring the quality of internal controls and ensuring that the financial performance of the Group is properly measured and reported on. It receives and reviews information and reports from the Group’s management and Auditor relating to the annual accounts and the accounting and internal control systems in use throughout the Group. It also advises the Board on the appointment of the Auditor, reviews their fees and discusses the nature, scope and results of the audit with the Auditor. The Audit Committee meets at least twice a year and has unrestricted access to the Group’s Auditor. The Executive Directors and the Chairman attend the Committee meetings by invitation as required. 

Remuneration Committee 

The Remuneration Committee is chaired by Charles Holroyd, who is the senior independent Non-Executive Director. The other members of this Committee are Ralph Cohen and Lushani Kodituwakku. The Remuneration Committee reviews the performance of the Executive Directors and makes recommendations to the Board on matters relating to their remuneration and terms of employment. The Remuneration Committee also makes recommendations to the Board on proposals for the granting of share options and other equity incentives pursuant to any share option scheme or equity incentive scheme in operation from time to time. The remuneration and terms and conditions of appointment of the non-executive Directors of the Company are set by the Board. The Chief Executive and Group Finance Director are invited to attend for some parts of the Committee meetings where their input is required although they do not take part in any discussion on their own benefits and remuneration. The Remuneration Committee meets at least once per year.

As the Board is small, there is no separate nominations committee and any consideration of recommendations for appointments to the Board is considered by a specific committee of Directors set up at that time.

Board effectiveness

Biographies of the Board seen within Management team set out the skills, knowledge and experience of the Board. This mix of capabilities enables them to constructively challenge strategy and review performance. All Directors undertake ongoing training sessions to ensure they retain relevant skills to execute their roles. 

Induction of new Directors

New Directors undergo a programme tailored to the existing knowledge and experience of the Director concerned and ensures they develop the requisite knowledge about the Group such that they can contribute fully, from an early stage.

Time commitments

All Directors are aware of the time required to fulfil the role prior to appointment and have confirmed their ability to meet the required commitment prior to appointment. This requirement is also included in their letters of appointment or service contract. The Board is satisfied that the Chairman and each of the Non-Executive Directors is able to devote sufficient time to the Group. Development The Company Secretary ensures that all Directors are made aware of changes in relevant legislation and regulations, with the assistance of the Company’s advisers where appropriate. Executive Directors are subject to the Company’s performance development review process and will obtain additional professional training as appropriate.

External appointments

In the appropriate circumstances, the Board may authorise Executive Directors to take Non-Executive positions in other companies and organisations, provided the time commitment does not impact upon the Director’s ability to perform their role, since such appointments should widen their experience. The Chairman will approve any such appointment. As part of Brad Ormsby’s appointment process as Non-Executive Director of Octopus AIM VCT 2 plc, the Board satisfied itself that he would be able to perform the additional role alongside his existing responsibilities and that the experience gained would also be beneficial for Judges Scientific.

Conflicts of interest

The Board regularly reviews any Directors’ conflicts of interest. The Company’s Articles of Association provide for the Board to authorise any actual or potential conflicts of interest. Independent professional advice Directors have access to independent professional advice at the Company’s expense. In addition, they have access to the advice and services of the Company Secretary who is responsible to the Board for advice on corporate governance matters. Directors’ and Officers’ liability insurance The Company has obtained Directors’ and Officers’ liability insurance during the year as permitted by the Company’s articles.

Election of Directors

As the business has developed, the composition of the Board has been under constant review to ensure that it remains appropriate to the managerial requirements of the Company.  Two directors retire annually in rotation in accordance with the Company's articles of association.  This enables the shareholders to decide on the election of the Company's Board at the Annual General Meeting, where election or re-election is voted on.

Performance evaluation

The Chairman discusses with each of the Non-Executive Directors their ongoing effectiveness. He is also responsible for the Executive composition of the Board. The Chief Executive assesses each Executive Director and provides informal feedback on their performance on a timely basis.

Internal controls

The Board has ultimate responsibility for the Group’s system of internal control and for reviewing its effectiveness. However, any such system of internal control can provide only reasonable, but not absolute, assurance against material misstatement or loss. The Board considers that the internal controls in place are appropriate for the size, complexity and risk profile of the Group. The principal components of the Group’s internal control system include:

• overview of the day-to-day activities of the Group by the Executive Directors;
• all proposed acquisitions are comprehensively reviewed by the Board;
• a comprehensive annual budgeting process which is approved by the Board;
• a decentralised organisational structure with defined levels of responsibility for all trading subsidiaries, to encourage principled entrepreneurial behaviour whilst minimising risks;
• rotational visits by the Board to the trading subsidiaries;
• detailed monthly reporting of performance against budget and forecast;
• central control over key areas such as cash/banking facilities; capital expenditure and cyber security; and
• an internal audit function which, on a rotational basis, reviews each of the Group’s trading subsidiaries and seeks to ensure consistent application of the Group’s policies.

The Group continues to assess and develop its internal control system to ensure compliance with best practice for a Group of its size. Relations with shareholders The Group maintains communication with institutional shareholders through individual meetings with Executive Directors, particularly following publication of the Group’s interim and full year results. 

Whistleblowing

The Group has had in place for several years a whistleblowing policy which sets out the formal process by which any employee of the Group may, in confidence, raise concerns about possible improprieties in financial reporting or other matters. Whistleblowing is a standing item on the Board’s agenda with updates provided at each meeting. During 2021 no matters were raised.

Further information is available in the formal Corporate Governance Statement, Audit Committee report and Remuneration report within the Group's 2021 annual report. Please click here to access this annual report.